LDAC Official Definition of Learning Disabilities

Note: This ‘official’ definition of Learning Disabilities is put forth by the Learning Disabilities of Canada, and is very similar to that put forth by their American counterparts (http://www.ldaamerica.org/aboutld/parents/special_ed/eligibility.asp). It is not a scientific definition, but a consensus definition for practical application. We do not know what learning disabilities are, only that some children and adults have trouble learning in the traditional classroom setting. This site’s private content provides more detailed commentary on this definition, how it helps, and how it is potentially misleading and harmful. Of particular note is that it is based on research that is of questionable veracity, for example, they define ‘vision’ very narrowly and do not exclude significant visual dysfunction when establishing whether a ‘disability’ exists or not.

Adopted by the Learning Disabilities Association of Canada January 30, 2002


Learning Disabilities refer to a number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding or use of verbal or nonverbal information. These disorders affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning. As such, learning disabilities are distinct from global intellectual deficiency.

Learning disabilities result from impairments in one or more processes related to perceiving, thinking, remembering or learning. These include, but are not limited to: language processing; phonological processing; visual spatial processing; processing speed; memory and attention; and executive functions (e.g. planning and decision-making).

Learning disabilities range in severity and may interfere with the acquisition and use of one or more of the following:

oral language (e.g. listening, speaking, understanding);

reading (e.g. decoding, phonetic knowledge, word recognition, comprehension);

written language (e.g. spelling and written expression); and

mathematics (e.g. computation, problem solving).

Learning disabilities may also involve difficulties with organizational skills, social perception, social interaction and perspective taking.

Learning disabilities are lifelong. The way in which they are expressed may vary over an individual’s lifetime, depending on the interaction between the demands of the environment and the individual’s strengths and needs. Learning disabilities are suggested by unexpected academic under-achievement or achievement which is maintained only by unusually high levels of effort and support.

Learning disabilities are due to genetic and/or neurobiological factors or injury that alters brain functioning in a manner which affects one or more processes related to learning. These disorders are not due primarily to hearing and/or vision problems, socio-economic factors, cultural or linguistic differences, lack of motivation or ineffective teaching, although these factors may further complicate the challenges faced by individuals with learning disabilities.

Learning disabilities may co-exist with various conditions including attentional, behavioural and emotional disorders, sensory impairments or other medical conditions.

For success, individuals with learning disabilities require early identification and timely specialized assessments and interventions involving home, school, community and workplace settings. The interventions need to be appropriate for each individual’s learning disability subtype and, at a minimum, include the provision of:

specific skill instruction;


compensatory strategies; and

self-advocacy skills.

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