Introduction to Learning and Vision Therapy: Clinically Speaking Part X

Part X – Visual Neurorehabilitation 3: Anti-Suppression and Fusion

About the Sample Activities

It is impractical to provide detailed commentary on these activities in such a short space, so I have decided to include more breadth than depth in this part to expose the reader to a more representative notion of what Optometric Vision Therapy (OVT) provides. Behavioral vision specialists spend 4 years studying diagnosis and management of diseases of the eye and the visual nervous system, physiological optics, human development, and multiple aspects of diagnosis and treatment of vision-based behavioural concerns. This is followed by ongoing work, training, and research into the field. It is, in other words, simply impossible to offer anything but a cursory overview of the domain in 10 Parts.

What is presented here and in Clinically Speaking Parts XIII and IX will be elaborated over time, so I’ve taken the liberty of splitting it up into three sections by theme. You can also search the site for ‘Activity’ for a general list of activities, or search for a specific activity name to learn more. The online library will continue to evolve over time, so feel free to send us your comments / requests.

About Strabismus and Amblyopia

These concepts are not specifically covered in this short course. Strabismus (or ‘eye turns’) and amblyopia (so-called ‘lazy eye’) result from varied concerns and require careful assessment and rigorous treatment. The current standard of care prescribes surgery for strabismus, and this often leads to new eye turns requiring repeat surgeries. The main problem with surgery is that it does not address the underlying sensory concerns of the vision disorder, choosing to view the problem as primarily a mechanical issue, which is frequently not the case. For example, extreme hyperopia is often associated with esotropia (inward eye turns) due to the ‘near triad‘, and so dealing with the issue by adjusting extraocular muscles will have only the appearance of successful treatment, but will lead to a new eye turn if the accommodative concerns of the hyperopia are not addressed. Indeed, inward eye turns and amblyopia due to refractive error can be effectively treated using non-surgical means simply by addressing underlying refractive and neurosensory deficits.

As with the preceding two Parts in this course, these activities are listed for general exposure to the techniques and tools of strabismus and amblyopia therapy. You are encouraged to do online searches for images of items mentioned.

Therapy for Strabismus and Amblyopia: Download the VT Workshop

  1. Pg 25 Anti-suppression and Fusion / Fusion Testing
  2. Pg 25 Anti-Suppression Therapy
  3. Pg 25 MIT Box with Alternate Flash
  4. Pg 26 Hand Mirror and Whiteboard Target
  5. Pg 27 Stereoscope Cards with Russell Rings
  6. Pg 28 Stereoscope Cards with Two Pointers
  7. Pg 28 – Fusion Therapy
  8. Pg 28 – 29:  Quoits Vectogram
  9. Pg 30 – Clown Vectogram
  10. Pg 30 Spirangle Vectogram
  11. 31 Brock String (See also Appendix pg 43 for Brock String Techniques)
  12. Pg 31 Single Aperture Rule
  13. 3Pg 2 – Double Aperture Rule
  14. Pg 33 – Lifesaver Card
  15. Pg 34 – Computer Orthoptics (See also Appendix pg 45 for Amblyopia Therapy at Home.)

Basic Equipment List

  1. Pg 35/36 – Equipment List



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